Tag Archives: express

Retrieving records from Apache Cassandra using NodeJS v0.10.35 and ExpressJS v4.0 via a REST interface

The adventures in Cassandra continue, and following on from the last post I’m going to show how to set up a REST interface to retrieve records from Apache Cassandra via Nodejs,

I’ll only set up the GET for a list of items and an individual item, the PUT, POST and DELETE actions I’ll leave to you.

NodeJS is a server based runtime environment for Javascript which uses Googles V8 javascript engine. It has proven to be an extremely fast way of pushing content and has been around for about 5 years now.

It is single threaded, sacrificing session and context specific overheads to maximise throughput.

As with Cassandra it can cope with a great number of requests a second (~ 500rps on 150 concurrent requests), obviously scaling up for processor, and as it is stateless, can be scaled up into round robin farms to cope at massive sizes. (see the Paypal and eBay metrics for more stat-candy).

To achieve a full-javascript stack, node is often used to drive javascript test-runners and compilation programs at the developer side, then used again, alongside a web server, such as ExpressJS to serve server side content back to a javascript application.

NodeJS runs on a variety of flavours of server  and desktop platform, but I’m going to skip the install of nodejs and try to keep this walkthrough as platform agnostic as possible. A common feature of all platforms is the NPM (Node Package Manager), and this is what we’ll be using to install the ExpressJS and Cassandra libraries we will need to serve the content.

Firstly, I’ll create a folder to run this application from, then I’ll open up a command prompt and browse to the folder. Then I install express by entering the following.

npm install express

The folder should now have a node_modules folder, which will contain the express server code and its dependencies.

We will also need to add  a package.json file so that node can verify the app on running.

{
  "name": "nd.neilhighley.com",
  "version": "1.0.0",
  "private": true,
  "scripts": {
    "start": "node ./bin/www"
  },
  "dependencies": {
    "express": "~4.11.1"
  }
}

Next, I create my application folder structure as follows;

>bin
>www
>public
>>javascripts
>routes
>views

Now I add a few javascript files to the following folders;

>www
www.js

adding the following code for the webserver

#!/usr/bin/env node

var app = require('../app');
var http = require('http');

var port = normalizePort(process.env.PORT || '8080');
app.set('port', port);
var server = http.createServer(app);
server.listen(port);
server.on('error', onError);
server.on('listening', onListening);

function normalizePort(val) {
 var port = parseInt(val, 10);

 if (isNaN(port)) {
 // named pipe
 return val;
 }

 if (port >= 0) {
 // port number
 return port;
 }

 return false;
}

function onError(error) {
 if (error.syscall !== 'listen') {
 throw error;
 }

 var bind = typeof port === 'string'
 ? 'Pipe ' + port
 : 'Port ' + port

 // handle specific listen errors with friendly messages
 switch (error.code) {
 case 'EACCES':
 console.error(bind + ' requires elevated privileges');
 process.exit(1);
 break;
 case 'EADDRINUSE':
 console.error(bind + ' is already in use');
 process.exit(1);
 break;
 default:
 throw error;
 }
}

function onListening() {
 var addr = server.address();
 var bind = typeof addr === 'string'
 ? 'pipe ' + addr
 : 'port ' + addr.port;
}

The code above simply sets up the webserver to listen on port 8080,  and sets our application main file as app.js in the folder root.

Before delving into app.js, I need to set up the routes, this will trap any calls to a particular Uri, and pass them to the appropriate codebase.  I’m going to name this after the route I will be using, this is not a requirement, but will help you in future! 😉

>routes
somedata.js
var express = require('express');
var router = express.Router();

/* GET data. */
router.get('/somedata/', function(req, res, next) {
 var jsonToSend={Message:"Here is my resource"};
 res.json(jsonToSend);
});

module.exports = router;

Now, I can set up my app.js file in the folder root to contain the main application logic.

var express = require('express');
var path = require('path');
var routes = require('./routes/somedata');
var app = express();

// view engine setup
//app.set('views', path.join(__dirname, 'views'));
//app.set('view engine', 'jade');

app.use(express.static(path.join(__dirname, 'public')));
app.use('/', routes);

// catch 404 and forward to error handler
app.use(function(req, res, next) {
 var err = new Error('Not Found');
 err.status = 404;
 next(err);
});

app.use(function(err, req, res, next) {
 res.status(err.status || 500);
 res.render('error', {
 message: err.message,
 error: err
 });
});

module.exports = app;

Lets do a quick test by starting the application

npm start

Then browsing to

http://localhost:8080/somedata

If all goes well, we will receive a JSON file as a response.

Now I can alter the routes file to mirror a typical REST interface.

Replace the previous single GET function above with the following

/* GET data. */
router.get('/somedata/', function(req, res, next) {
 var jsonToSend={Message:"Here is my resource"};
 res.json(jsonToSend);
});

router.get('/somedata/:item_id', function(req, res, next) {
 var jsonToSend={Message:"Here is my resource of item "+req.params.item_id};
 res.json(jsonToSend);
});

Confirm the above by calling the following urls and checking the content;

http://localhost:8080/somedata/
http://localhost:8080/somedata/12

The second url should return with the message which has the item_id in it.

Now I have confirmed the framework running, I’ll connect to cassandra and retrieve the records. To do that we just need to replace the jsonToSend with the cassandra response.

So, install the cassandra node client, as follows, in the root of your application.

npm install cassandra-driver

Then to update the package.json, add the cassandra-driver, as installed, so package.json now looks like;

{
 "name": "nd.neilhighley.com",
 "version": "1.0.0",
 "private": true,
 "scripts": {
 "start": "node ./bin/www"
 },
 "dependencies": {
 "express": "~4.11.1",
 "cassandra-driver":"~1.0.2"
 }
}

I’ll use the same keyspace as the last blog post, so have a look there for details on setting up cassandra.

casswcfexample

Update the somedata.json file to the following

var express = require('express');
var router = express.Router();

var cassandra = require('cassandra-driver');
var async = require('async');

var client = new cassandra.Client({contactPoints: ['127.0.0.1'], keyspace: 'casswcfexample'});

function GetRecordsFromDatabase(callback) {
 client.execute("select tid,description,title from exampletable", function (err, result) {
 if (!err){
 if ( result.rows.length > 0 ) {
 var records = result.rows[0];
 callback(1,result.rows);
 } else {
 callback(1,{});
 }
 }else{
 callback(0,{});
 }

 });
 }

function GetRecords(res){
 var callback=function(status,recs){
 if(status!=1){
 res.json({Error:"Error"});
 }else{
 var jsonToSend={Results:recs};
 res.json(jsonToSend);
 }
 };

 GetRecordsFromDatabase(callback);
}

/* GET data. */
router.get('/somedata/', function(req, res, next) {
 GetRecords(res);
});

router.get('/somedata/:item_id', function(req, res, next) {
 var jsonToSend={Message:"Here is my resource from "+req.params.item_id};
 res.json(jsonToSend);
});

module.exports = router;

Now when we call the following url

http://localhost:8080/somedata/

We should receive the following (or similar).

{"Results":[{"tid":1,"description":"description","title":"first title"},{"tid":2,"description":"another description","title":"second title"}]}

If you get an error, it may mean that async and long may need to be installed in your application root also. Install them with the npm.

We can format the JSON returned by altering  the GetRecords function.

The GetRecord function will be almost identical to the GetRecords function, just passing in the Id and changing the CQL.

function GetRecordFromDatabase(passed_item_id,callback) {
 client.execute("select tid,description,title from exampletable where tid="+passed_item_id, function (err, result) {
 if (!err){
 if ( result.rows.length > 0 ) {
 var record = result.rows[0];
 callback(1,record);
 } else {
 callback(1,{});
 }
 }else{
 callback(0,{});
 }

 });
 }

function GetRecord(r_item_id,res){
 var callback=function(status,recs){
 if(status!=1){
 res.json({Error:"Error"});
 }else{
 var jsonToSend={Results:recs};
 res.json(jsonToSend);
 }
 };

 GetRecordFromDatabase(r_item_id,callback);
}

There are a few things that can be done to the above code, including;

– Place all CRUD operations in standard library
– Have middleware fulfill requests to enable client side error catching and cleaner implementation

Hope you have enjoyed the example above. Apologies for any typos, etc. 🙂

Until next time.